Monthly Archives: January 2017

Critiquing Cheat Sheet

Before using this critiquing cheat sheet, you must ensure that you have thick skin. It doesn’t matter if someone starts off with something encouraging (which, by the way, you should do) having your work critiqued is tough.

But thick skins are a necessity if you want to be a writer, and tough critiquing is the first step in a journey of rejection, self-flaggelation and heaps of crying sessions. But the goal is so wonderful (my book in a bookstore, yay!) that if you can survive all that, it’s so worthwhile.

1. Look at the Big Picture

Having a weekly group who can read your novel right from the beginning makes a huge difference. They will be able to look at the big picture and ensure that not only do you have an inciting incident that propels your protagonist on his/her path, but they will also be able to get a sense of what is at stake. In my classes, I enjoy people jumping in and having a meaningful discussion by sharing viewpoints, versus each person pontificating about a point and then moving on to the next person.

2. What NOT to Concentrate On

Critiquing is not about niggling at someone’s work. It’s about seeing the whole picture. Forget about a grammar or spelling mistake here or there. Correct it, and move on. The person will see it and note it for the next time. Instead, concentrate on the points that matter.

3. Showing vs. Telling 

Most early drafts tell when they should be showing, and quite often the writer has not picked up on this because they’re so bent on getting their story out. A small nudge in the right direction helps.

4. Character Development

Are the characters flat or uni-dimensional. Do they have flaws?

5. Plot 

Does the piece make sense? How does it flow well – what is the pacing like?  Does the opening/ending of the chapter capture your attention? Have you moved sentences around? Does the piece need to be tightened – too much verbiage? These are the types of questions you should be asking yourself when critiquing someone’s work.

6. Dialogue

  • Is the dialogue stilted?  Dialogue should sound like conversation, but it’s not. It’s a way to further the plot, but should never be an info dump.
  • Inner talk is good, so long as it seems natural. Not many of us go around delivering massive monologues to ourselves. Make sure the inner thought sounds natural.

7. Conflict

Tension and conflict is what makes a novel interesting. Is there any in the scene?

8. Passive vs. Active Voice

Passive voice is extremely common and many writers don’t notice it in their work. Look for weak phrases that begin with ‘it was’ – they’re easy to spot and are usually passive.

9. Point of View

This is something else that a fresh eye can detect. Very often, the writer will slip into an omniscient voice. Make sure the point of view is correct.

10. Voice and Tone

Slipping from the voice and tone of the main character can often happen, and pointing out that the character doesn’t sound like he/she should is something worth pointing out.

How to Plot a Story

If you are writing literary fiction, you can get away with no plot – lots of flowery writing  that goes nowhere, or little snapshots of life are perfectly acceptable for this genre. For anything else, your readers will expect a plot.

What is a plot? 

A plot is your main character diving into a crucial situation to pursue a specific goal but of course encountering insurmountable odds along the way. That is the essence of a plot. Lies, obstacles, misinformation, these are all wonderful components of a plot.

A plot is the skeleton of your story; the bones that hold the framework of your novel together and create the action and conflict. It is the reason for the tale. In The Hunger Games, for example, the people are … well, hungry. They compete in a game of death where the winner receives – food.

The main plot can be depicted in an arc to show the beginning, the middle and the end. It is the story of what happens to your main character; what she wants: whether it is a specific role on Broadway or to become an Olympic hurdling champion. Her objective has to be specific.

You can have sub-plots running through the main plot line – in fact, you need to have sub-plots in order to give your story more layers. Just like in real life where we have multiple things going on in our lives, so too, the protagonist of your story should have a full life. He should not so focused on his goal that nothing else happens to him. This type of character would be boring and one-dimensional.

Other Elements

Of course, your plot depends on other elements as well. It must be fleshed out. Remember the plot is just the skeleton. You give it substance by adding in:

  • Multiple characters
  • Conflict (this is super important)
  • Satisfying Ending

A Riveting, Gripping, Spell-binding Plot Line

That’s what all writers hope for. But what makes for a page turner, for a book that the reader just can’t put down? Three elements:

  1. Multi-dimensional characters you care about
  2. Writing that flows and is effortless
  3. Major and minor complications and obstacles that the protagonist must face and conquer. Keep your reader guessing in each chapter to make her want to continue reading.

Plot Structure

It may not seem like it when you are reading a fascinating story but the author has structured the plot in a very specific way in order to grab your attention and keep it for the duration of the book.

  1. Beginning. This is where we meet the protagonist and find out what he or she is doing and why. We often discover them in the middle of some action that will form the basis of the story. Enough backstory will leak through to give us some idea of their personality and their present life. Conflict will be introduced to keep us biting our nails and rooting for the hero.
  2. Middle. The action keeps moving at a rapid pace. Sub-plots enter the story and must be attended to as well.
  3. More than middle of the way. The climax of the story is reached and we have bitten our nails down to nub by this point. In Titanic, it’s when the ship hits the iceberg and panic ensues.
  4. End. The action starts to wrap up. In Titanic, that means Jack manages to get Rose on a wooden board that’s only big enough for one person. He remains in the water and by the time rescue arrives he is frozen to death. The resolution of the story happens when Rose (now very old) passes away and is reunited with Jack.

You might also like these posts from Writer’s Digest:

Publishers for Short Stories

See below for a list of Publishers for Short Stories.

Go for it. Submit your best short story collection now.

Independent:

Big Houses:

 

You might also like these posts from Writer’s Digest:

Too Old to Write

Frank McCourt was 60 when he published his first book

Too Old to Write – think again.

Writing is something you can do at any age. In fact, retirement brings you the perfect opportunity to allow your imagination to run free. After all, your mind is not encumbered with worries about work and other mundane bothers.

Plusses to Writing When you are Older

Think about your children, and your children’s children. They may be too busy with their day-to-day activities to listen to your stories of your childhood during the Depression or your stint in a war. But one day, they will be. Writing a memoir will bring that history to life. You don’t want it to be a statement of facts – that’s one reason why young people dislike history in school: boring facts. Dress your memoir up. Bring in the excitement, the dread, the horror, the fear and the adventures you went through. Your family will eat it up like candy.

Everyone has a story in them. Try telling anyone that you are writing a book, and they will tell

Credit: livescience.com

you that it’s something they want to do too. If you enjoy reading fiction, try your hand at it. Not only will you enjoy the process, it will also help to keep your mind active and your brain cells healthy. Besides, it’s sheer fun to create something out of nothing.

Taking a creative writing class is a great way to meet other people who have similar ideas and a fantastic way to enlarge your circle of friends. Quite often, as we get older we notice that our thinking and feelings have changed and are not necessarily close to those we were once friends with. Enjoy the camaraderie that a class of fellow writers bring.

Age brings wisdom and a certain I-don’t-care attitude. You have reached a stage in life where you can do what you want and damn what anyone else thinks. So write down those gems that are hidden in your mind, and take a chance on yourself. You’re never too old to write.

You might also like these posts from Writer’s Digest:

Improve Your Writing

If you are a beginner writer, chances are you need to improve your writing. The writing style that children learn in school is vastly different to what novelists use. In fact, the styles taught in high school are almost the very opposite of what you should do.

Recently, I coached a high school student who wanted to improve a short story she had written. Every second dialogue tag had adverbs added to them: ex: she said warily; excitedly; innocently; emotionally; coldly – you get the drift. In actual fact, adverbs should be used like condiments – only when needed.

What Areas to Improve

There are so many areas to concentrate on. As a writer, the English language is your tool and if you are unable to use that tool well – you will not be able to write. Some of those tools include grammar, vocabulary and spelling. Learn to spell, or at the very least, use your spell-checker.

A thesaurus is built-in to your computer – use it, but be aware of the words you choose. Randomly ascribing a word you’ve found on your thesaurus does not work. You actually need to understand the meaning and the context of the word you choose

Writing and Feedback

Writing, writing and writing some more will help you to write well. Pick up a piece you wrote just a few years before and you’ll be surprised at the change in the flow of your thoughts and your word.
Joining a creative writing class with an instructor who is tough, fair and offers good feedback is a great idea. You will be part of a group that will not only help and challenge you, it will also motivate you to continue writing and offer a camaraderie that you will enjoy.

There’s so much more that will help you improve your writing. You need to learn structure, how to pace your story and allow the words to unfold, how to plot, how to build characters, how to write so that you hook your audience in. But the most important of all is to just get out and start writing.